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  • 山西日報:為重載道路“減負”

    發布日期:2019/1/31 9:03:48 瀏覽:

    山西省交通科學研究院一項目榮獲2018年度國家科學技術進步二等獎,17年披荊斬棘——

    核心閱讀:

     歷時3年,摸排近百條重載高速、干線公路的交通情況;歷時5年,收集研究全國各地194個站點最近50年的氣象資料,開展了11820組不同材料的耐沖刷試驗和三軸重復壓縮試驗;研發至今,獲發明專利17項,成功應用于重載機場、港口鋪面工程以及高速公路、國省干線公路的建養工程中,近三年取得經濟效益5.63億元。

     17年,于歷史,只是光陰一瞬,然而,對于“重載水泥混凝土鋪面關鍵技術與工程應用”項目組來說,17年意味著堅韌的付出、不懈的攀登和持之以恒的科研探索。

    1998年1月1日項目正式拉開大幕,到2014年12月研發成功,整整17年的時間,科研人員披荊斬棘,克服重重困難,在我國乃至世界范圍內攻克了重載水泥混凝土路面技術方面的難題,造福山西,裨益世界,最終于今年1月8日榮登國家級領獎臺

    面對世界級難題,項目研究從1998年開始

    “這個獎項是我省唯一主持完成的獲獎項目,也是山西省交通運輸領域20年來取得的國家科技最高獎項。”1月23日,項目完成人山西交通控股集團有限公司趙隊家教高說,這一榮譽是省科技廳、交通廳大力支持的結果,也凝聚著山西交通人迎難而上、開拓創新的勇氣和精神。

    如今,水泥混凝土鋪面隨處可見,我國超過90%的機場跑道、70%的港口堆場和60%的公路路面均采用水泥混凝土鋪面。然而,隨著現代交通重軸載、多軸化趨勢的發展,混凝土鋪面普遍面臨早期斷裂易發、抗滑衰減加快、舒適性能降低、維修難以實施等世界級難題,嚴重影響運行品質和效率,縮短使用壽命,并危及飛機和車輛安全。

    對于山西這樣的資源大省,運煤重載公路“修了壞、壞了修”的問題同樣一直困擾著混凝土路面的建設。

    為此,自1998年起,山西省交通科學研究院牽頭聯合交通運輸部公路科學研究所、同濟大學等單位的專家學者,圍繞這一難題潛心鉆研,開展了重載和環境耦合作用下混凝土鋪面結構的設計理論與方法、材料與施工工藝、快速維護技術等研究。

    精準聚焦各類現實問題,千錘百煉中尋找答案

    為徹查重載車輛特征及路面損壞原因,項目組先后組織近千人次、歷時3年,對近百條重載高速、干線公路的交通情況進行了摸排。調研結果顯示,在重荷載、高頻次作用下,普通混凝土路面結構、材料,以及常規設計和施工方法均遠遠無法滿足使用需求。

    厘清重載特征后,項目組在混凝土路面結構和材料上整整下了5年功夫。混凝土鋪面的溫度場是影響其結構性能的重要因素,而我國南北方氣候迥異,溫度梯度差別巨大,為了給出全國都能使用的溫度梯度計算式,項目組歷時2年,先后收集了分布在烏魯木齊、漠河、拉薩、廣州等全國各地194個站點最近50年的氣象資料,繪制了不同混凝土鋪面結構近10年的溫度場圖譜,給出了3區12項體系的全國混凝土鋪面結構氣候分區及分析參數。

    針對重載作用下基底沉陷、層間脫空等引發的混凝土鋪面損壞問題,項目組通過現場取芯、室內成型等方式開展了11820組不同材料的耐沖刷試驗和三軸重復壓縮試驗,僅實驗室廢件就堆滿了兩間廠房,最終建立了基層沖刷系數和土基塑性、彈性應變比的預測模型,為解決鋪面脫空斷裂提供了理論依據。

    針對機場不停航施工的迫切需求,團隊研發了“三維掃描、精細預制、低擾破除和精準裝配”一體化快速修復技術,解決了不停航施工難題。

    針對維修用混凝土的快硬需求與無法長距離運輸之間的矛盾,項目組發明了混凝土二次拌和用分散劑和促凝劑,通過對運至現場的大流態混凝土實施二次拌和,以實現混凝土現場自密、促凝,將延續近百年的28天的傳統維修周期縮短至6小時。

    針對脫空鋪面結構,基于小尺寸效應和納米改善液固相接觸面技術,并經高速機械攪拌的破壁效應,最終項目組將注漿漿體的流動性由22s提到12s,并且采用納米改性自流平水泥基注漿修補材料,實現了2小時內達到開放交通的美好愿望,令業內側目。

    項目成果達“國際領先水平”,顯現社會經濟雙重效益

    在突破層層困難,解決一個個的難題之后,項目組建立了雙參數地基上的雙層復合板模型,突破了傳統理論存在奇異點等基礎理論問題,將臨界荷位應力與位移的計算精度提高了50%以上;系統整合了荷載作用模式和等效溫度應力的時空變化特征和4種標準計算模態,提高鋪面結構近10倍的耐沖刷能力,降低28%的翹曲應力,降低土基2/3的不均勻沉陷……每一個進步的背后都是科研人員不懈努力的見證。

    不僅如此,依托項目成果,項目組還編制了《水泥混凝土鋪面技術標準》《民用機場水泥混凝土道面設計規范》《港口道路與堆場設計規范》等10部國家行業標準,構建了涵蓋設計、施工、試驗、驗收和養護技術的國家和行業標準體系,對機場、港口堆場、重載公路建養起到了積極的指導作用。

    “隨著‘一帶一路’倡議的實施,大型設計、施工企業將越來越多地參與到沿線國家交通基礎設施建設中。”項目完成人山西省交通科學研究院劉少文教高告訴記者,主導該領域國際技術標準的制定,對于沿線國家交通基礎設施的互聯互通具有重要作用。

    功夫不負有心人。2019年1月8日,中共中央、國務院在北京隆重舉行國家科學技術獎勵大會。山西交控集團旗下的交通科學研究院主持完成的“重載水泥混凝土鋪面關鍵技術與工程應用”項目,榮獲2018年度國家科學技術進步二等獎。

    目前,項目成果總體達到了“國際領先水平”,不僅獲得17項發明專利,系統解決了重載水泥混凝土鋪面結構的理論、設計、施工、維護等技術難題,突破了鋪面三十年不大修的技術瓶頸,并成功應用于山西京大、得大、大同西北環等高速公路,大同電煤集運通道、呂梁、朔州等地的重載公路,北京新機場、上海浦東機場、喀麥隆kribi深水港等鋪面工程中,近三年取得經濟效益5.63億元。同時,該項成果還在中國及“一帶一路”沿線國家近千個機場和港口、上萬公里的重載公路和百萬公里鄉村道路的新建、更新與升級中發揮了重要作用。

                          (來源:山西日報  冷雪 通訊員  張艷聰)

     

     

     

     

     

     

     


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